BIOFIN Catalogue of Finance Solutions

The biodiversity finance landscape is changing. Both domestic and international financial flows have grown and the range of financing instruments, providers and delivery mechanisms now available is significantly wider than ever before. This online “catalogue” is a comprehensive list of these instruments, tools and strategies that are applicable to the field of biodiversity finance. Each catalogue entry is a mechanism or “finance solution” and includes a brief description as well as links to guidance material or case studies.

The searchable catalogue below provides a listing of all solutions profiled. Solutions can also be searched by the financial result they produce, the financial instrument they rely upon, whether they are public or private finance, and the economic sector in which their use is most prevalent.

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Finance Solutions

 
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68 Results

Taxes on pesticides and fertilizers

Any tax, fee, or charge paid for the consumption and economic use of pesticides and fertilizers. Taxes on pesticides and fertilizers can reduce the overdue of these potentially harmful substances and decrease adverse impacts to biodiversity and habitats. Tax revenues may be allocated for biodiversity management purposes.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Mining

Mining

Water

Water

Taxes on renewable natural capital

Any tax, fee, or charge paid for the extraction and/or use of renewable natural resources (e.g. timber or water). Following the polluter-pays or user-pays principles, these levies help to catpure the production value of nature and internalize the true cost of ecosystem degradation by influencing the price of the natural capital “consumed”.  Note: this solution is also captured elsewhere in the catalogue including forestry and water entries.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Energy

Energy

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Taxes, fees and quotas in the fishery sector

The taxation of the fishery sector and/or the introduction of fees and quotas can provide ring-fenced financing for conservation as well as influence market behavior in order to reach a biologically and economically sustainable level of fish stocks and harvests (i.e. reduce over-fishing). 

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Fishing

Fishing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Refining incentives and other regulations in the fishery sector

A wide range of supporting policies and regulations can have an economic impact on the fishery sector including regulating the number of support vessels per fishing vessel, reducing subsidies for fuel and equipment, boats, ice etc.  The sector and specific fisheries should be explored from a systems perspective to identify underlying policy, subside, and regulatory opportunities. 

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Fishing

Fishing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Improved fisheries equipment and associated laws and regulations

Regulations, rules, and laws including associated fines and penalties for non-compliance are a market-based policy to incentivize fisherfolk and commercial enterprises to reduce their direct and indirect impact on the fisheries and related ecosystems by directing fishing activities towards less damaging or more sustainable equipment use.  Revenue collected through penalties are less important than changing the incentive structure for the fishery actors.  

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Fishing

Fishing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Fisheries landing fee

As an alternative from quotas the fisherfolk pays a fee to an authority based on the quantity of fish caught. The landing fee ensures that the true economic price is paid for the fish, thereby removing any incentive for overfishing. The money raised by the landing fee could be allocated to sustainable fishery or marine conservation activities.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Fishing

Fishing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Fisheries quotas (catch limits)

To reduce total catch of a wild fishery to a biologically and economically sustainable level, authorities can introduce quotas for catches. Ideally, the cap should be set at a level that allows optimal economic yields along with conservation considerations. Quotas are specified in tons or numbers and are broken down by species and often fishing method. Some quota systems allow quotas be sold, auctioned or distributed at no cost and then quotas could also be allowed to float in a market (tradable quotas). The revenues generated from the sale of quotas can be earmarked to support sustainable fishery or marine conservation.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Fishing

Fishing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Taxes, fees and royalties in the forestry sector

Taxes, fees, royalties and other charges on the extraction, transport and/or use of forests and forestry activities. Following the user-pays principle (and polluter pays), these levies help to capture the benefits of production services from nature and internalize the true cost of ecosystem degradation by influencing the price of the "consumed" natural capital. Revenues may or may not be allocated to environmental purposes. The most used forms of taxation are stumpage fees, concessions fees, royalties based either on the volume or the value of the timber harvested and export levies (e.g. Ghana has applied rates from 1 to 2 per cent on timber exports).

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Non-timber forest product harvesting licenses and fees

Licenses and other fees associated with the collection, transport and sale of Non-Timber Forest Products including mushrooms, latex (sap), honey, flowers, tubers, etc.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Forests

Forests

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Transport

Transport

Forestry transportation fees

Forestry transportation fees can be used in addition to stumpage or other fees as either a cost recovery tool to pay for roads and other transport infrastructure, or as a means to improve regulation and control of the industry.  It should be noted that any fee that raises cost of production or transport may influence the market price and trading volumes. For example, export levies capture forestry revenue and have been used to encourage increased domestic value-added wood industries by charging much higher levies on raw wood as compared to furniture. 

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Forests

Forests

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Other forestry royalties

Other types of royalties can be paid for forests and forestry products including collection fees for Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP, see below) such as mushrooms, fruit, honey, etc. recreational exploitation (hotels, restaurants, etc.), access (pipelines, telephone towers, electricity, etc.), and real estate (e.g. home ownership). 

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Forestry concession fees

Fees paid for access to exploit forestry areas usually under public ownership and government control.  Often there is a requirement for the concessionaire (holder of the concession) to produce a management plan that is approved by the land owner. Concession fees and systems allow for private long term planning if the concessions are of adequate length to make a rotational forestry practice feasible.  Concession fees are based on an economic assessment of the value of the timber or other forest resources (which can include non-use values such as recreation). 

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Forestry stumpage fees

A fee paid for the right to harvest timber from a given area. Typically paid to a private land owner or the government (if the land is public land).  Stumpage fees are determined by a combination of fixed or market prices and the volume harvested (e.g. cubic metres, board feet, tons).

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Trade finance

Broadly defined as the set of financial instruments that support foreign trade transactions, trade finance includes letters of credit, factoring, export credit and insurance. The provision of trade finance support is often limited in developing countries due to the lack of service providers or affordable products. Trade finance is particularly needed to support bio trade, i.e. activities related of collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability.

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Trade

Trade

Trust funds

Legal vehicle (trust) that supports biodiversity by mobilizing, blending, and overseeing the allocation of financial assets. It is a country-driven solution that  should feature a clear focus, a rigorous project approval and implementation process, solid monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and strict control over asset/financial management and investment. The term encompasses conservation funds, carbon funds and other environmental funds. They can be regional, national or sub-national. Common type of capital structures include endowment, sinking and revolving funds.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Regional trust funds

Legal vehicle (trust) that supports biodiversity by mobilizing, blending, and overseeing the allocation of financial assets at the regional level. Examples of regional environmental funds are found in the Caribbean, Central Africa and Pacific regions.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Oil and gas and other natural resource revenue funds

Legal vehicle (trust) that supports environmental priorities by mobilizing, blending, and overseeing the allocation of financial assets for generated from revenues or fees associated with non-renewable and renewable natural resources managed as a trust fund. 

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Energy

Energy

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Transport

Transport

Protected areas trust funds

Environmental Trust Funds established for the financing and support of individual protected areas, regional groupings of protected areas or entire protected areas systems.  Funds can be local, national, or include several countries. 

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Air pollution funds

Legal vehicle (trust) that supports environmental priorities by mobilizing, blending, and overseeing the allocation of financial assets for combatting air pollution.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Energy

Energy

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Transport

Transport

Climate, carbon and forestry funds

Legal vehicle (trust) that supports climate priorities by mobilizing, blending, and overseeing the allocation of financial assets. It is a country-driven solution that  should feature a clear focus, a rigorous project approval and implementation process, solid monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and strict control over asset/financial management and investment. The term encompasses carbon sequestration funds. Climate and biodiversity are strongly related with well known ecosystem-based solutions for both mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Energy

Energy

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Venture capital

Type of equity financing that responds to the need of companies that due to size, assets or stage of development cannot seek capital from more traditional sources, such as public markets and banks. Venture capitalists play a more active role in the companies they invest in, mostly small, early-stage and high-growth companies. They are also ready to face higher risks on a longer investment horizon. Venture capital strategies are suitable for higher-risk developing countries' markets or for targeting business opportunities in new and innovative niches and products. Venture capital has been relatively limited to date for biodiversity businesses. 

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Biodiversity business incubator

Business incubators are institutions that provide technical or financial services to strengthen startups and early stage enterprises. Incubators can support companies with an explicit commitment to biodiversity by hosting them in their premises and facilitating matching capital from angel investors, state governments, economic-development coalitions and other investors.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Biodiversity enterprise funds

Biodiversity Enterprise Funds are highly flexible investment funds that provide debt or equity to companies that sustainably use or protect biodiversity, such as sustainable agriculture and forestry, non-timber forest products, and ecotourism. Funds are structured to cover the typically unmet capital needs (debt, equity, quasi-equity) of a wide range of biodiversity-related businesses. They are for-profit investment vehicles that provide financial returns to their investors. 

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Water

Water

Water markets

Water markets create the possibility of buying and selling water access and use water resources. Trading of water rights can promote a more efficient allocation of water rights among users and increase water availability in areas of increasing water scarcity and demand For example, water markets have been used to enhance available habitat for endangered salmon species in northwestern North America.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Forests

Forests

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Water

Water