Cuba has a large variety of ecosystems and landscapes. It is composed of a main island and several archipelagos. Although 30% of existing mangroves is affected by the human presence and modification of natural habitat, this ecosystem is ranked first amongst the Caribbean island countries and ninth worldwide. Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is one of the most important islands worldwide for biodiversity. The high level of endemism is caused by extreme climate conditions, diversity of habitat, geologic evolution (soil mosaic) and geographic isolation. As a result, approximately 50% of plant species and 42% of animal species can be found in Cuba only. Of the 612 vertebrate species, endemics include 15 mammals, 91 reptiles, 43 amphibians, 23 fish and 22 birds.  It is estimated that the number of marine species is 10,500 and that 30% of the total number of marine species is yet to be discovered. The country counts 6,519 species of vascular plants and an estimated 26,953 animal species, mainly invertebrate, of which 16,516 are known.

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