Located in tropical Southeast Asia, Thailand has land area of 513,120 square kilometers, a population of 68 million, and a population density of 132 persons per square kilometers. With per capita income of 5,720 USD, Thailand is an upper middle income country and has been since 2011. While Thailand’s economy relies largely on the industrial and service sectors, agricultural activities remain an important part of the country for historical and employment reasons. (World Bank, 2017). The purpose of BIOFIN in Thailand is to support the Royal Thai Government (RTG) in translating the National Economics and Social Development Plan, especially on the sustainable utilization of natural resources as a foundation to green growth and inclusive development, into actual implementation with financial strategies with regard to the Integrated National Biodiversity Plan.
Prioritised Finance Solutions
- Payment for Ecosystem Services - http://www.undp.org/content/sdfinance/en/home/solutions/payments-for-ecosystem-services.html
- Nutrient Trading - Nutrient trading is a form of exchange (buying & selling) of nutrient reduction credits. These credits have a monetary value that may be paid to the seller for installing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nitrogen or phosphorous.
- Biodiversity Offsets - http://www.undp.org/content/sdfinance/en/home/solutions/biodiversity-offset.html
- Impact Investment - http://www.undp.org/content/sdfinance/en/home/solutions/impact-investment.html
This document represents a Policy and Institutional Review (PIR) report covering the urban biodiversity and ecosystems sector for Thailand. The document is divided into 5 sections. The first section provides background information on Thailand. The second section shows the status and trends of urban biodiversity and ecosystems in the country. The third section looks at the sectoral practices underlying negative and positive trends. The fourth section discusses the main policy frameworks underlying urban biodiversity and ecosystems. The final section summarizes the contents of the report and provide policy recommendations.
BIOFIN Thailand has other Policy and Institutional Review summaries.
1) PIR on Coastal and Marine Ecosystems
2) PIR on Wetland Ecosystems
This report summarizes current findings from the budget expenditure review that was conducted as part of BIOFIN’s overall assessment of Thailand’s current biodiversity policy environment and investment status. BIOFIN’s conceptual model views the integration of biodiversity investment and resource mobilization into public and private decision making and financing, as being based on a three-part process: 1) A review of current policy practice, biodiversity and ecosystem trends, relevant actors and current expenditures (Policy and Institutional Review in Workbook 1A, 1B and Expenditure Review in Workbook 1C); 2) Costing for the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and actions (Workbook 2); and 3) Identification of potential finance actors, mechanisms, revenue and feasibility (Workbook 3). The process evolves around national biodiversity strategies and action plans that aim to synthesize the root causes of biodiversity and ecosystem pressures, generate public awareness, and identify potential drivers of changes and financing solutions. The resource mobilization plans aim to achieve a better investment state by generating sufficient public and private responses in order to close the biodiversity financing gap.
The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary estimates of financing needs for biodiversity conservation for Thailand. The results are based on three sources of information namely (i) National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAP) (ii) the budget estimate of MONRE and (iii) BIOFIN Thailand estimates of financing needs for coastal and marine ecosystems. It has been the intention of BIOFIN Thailand that more in-depth estimates for financing needs for terrestrial and inland wetland ecosystems similar to the details for coastal and marine ecosystems. This would, however, require additional time to collaborate with the line agencies responsible for these ecosystems, namely the Department of National Park Wildlife and Plants (DNP), the Royal Forestry Department (RFD) and the Office of Natural Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP). It was thus decided that, parallel to the work undertaken on the pilot studies, we will be continuing with the work on costing selected measures for terrestrial and inland wetland ecosystems with the aim that by the end of 2018, we will have clearer ideas of measures required to improve the two ecosystem. Until these are available and accessible, the estimates in this report should be considered as the lower bound estimates of what will be required. Moreover the figures on overall financing needs have been revised and slightly differ from the sum reported in the BIOFIN Regional Workshop in Kazakhstan in April and this is due to different time period for cost estimates of coral reefs and seagrass restoration
Under this component BIOFIN will help develop a strategy to mobilize potential finance actors and mechanisms to reach national biodiversity targets. To start late 2016/early 2017.
The scope of activities shall be defined by the recommendations of the Resource Mobilisation Strategy. To start in 2017.